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Abnormal Pap Smears

abn-pap-01

An abnormal pap smear doesn't necessarily indicate a condition like HPV or cervical cancer. Pap smears are constructed to detect any changes within the cervical cells, and abnormal results may indicate other conditions such as inflammation, hyperkeratosis, or atypical squamous or glandular cells. False positives are also common from Pap smears, but we take every precaution we can to ensure your health. If you have atypical cells, we may need to test for HPV (Human papilloma Virus) to see if we need to do a biopsy.

Your doctor may perform a colposcopy after abnormal cells are found in order to examine the cervix more closely and take a biopsy of any abnormal tissues. Any necessary treatment will be performed after further examination and biopsy results have returned. See colposcopy for more information on this procedure.

Patient Diagnosis:
Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASC-US)

The Pap test is intended to detect cancer and changes that may lead to cancer.  The Pap test recently performed by your Doctor has shown some abnormal cell changes of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASC-US). This diagnosis does not mean that you have cervical cancer, but you have some mildly abnormal cellular changes.  To determine if these results are benign reactive changes or early precancerous changes may require additional testing.  Your Pap results will be reviewed by your physician to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for you.

Facts about ASC-US
  • Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance may be the result of reaction to an inflammatory process, irritation, or hormonal changes.  None of these increase your risk for cervical cancer and may or may not require treatment.
  • Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance are often caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV).  Persistent genital infection with a high risk type of HPV has been associated with cervical cancer.  Your physician may order an additional test on your Pap specimen to look for genetic material (DNA) from HPV.
  • It is important to follow your clinician’s recommendations regarding follow-up and treatment of AS-CUS.
     
Facts about Cervical Cancer
  • The American Cancer Society predicts that about 12,360 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer in the U.S. in 2014.
  • Risk factors for cervical cancer include, but are not limited to:  HPV (high risk) infection, sexual activity at a young age, a history of multiple sexual partners, smoking, and conditions that compromise the immune system, such as HIV infection. 
  • Early detection greatly improves the chances of successful treatment and prevents any early cervical cell changes from becoming cancerous. Cervical cancer is rare in women who have received regular screening before the age of 65.  
     
Sources for Additional Information




Patient Diagnosis:
Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL)

The Pap test is intended to detect cancer and changes that may lead to cancer.  The Pap test recently performed by your Doctor has shown some abnormal cell changes of Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL). This diagnosis does not mean that you have cervical cancer but that you have human papilloma virus related changes that require additional follow-up.  Your Pap results will be reviewed by your physician to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for you.

Facts about LSIL
  • LSIL is a mild cervical abnormality known to be caused by HPV infection.  Persistent HPV infections have been linked to the development of cervical cancer.
  • It is important to follow your clinician’s recommendations regarding follow-up and treatment of LSIL.

Facts about Cervical Cancer
  • The American Cancer Society predicts that about 12,360 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer in the U.S. in 2014.
  • Risk factors for cervical cancer include, but are not limited to:  HPV (high risk) infection, sexual activity at a young age, a history of multiple sexual partners, smoking, and conditions that compromise the immune system, such as HIV infection.  
  • Early detection greatly improves the chances of successful treatment and prevents any early cervical cell changes from becoming cancerous. Cervical cancer is rare in women who have received regular screening before the age of 65.

Sources for Additional Information



Patient Diagnosis:
High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL)

The Pap test is intended to detect cancer and changes that may lead to cancer.  The Pap test recently performed by your Doctor has shown some abnormal cell changes of High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL).  This diagnosis does not mean that you have cervical cancer but that you have a cervical lesion which may be precancerous.

Facts about HSIL
  • HSIL is a severe cervical abnormality that if left un-treated, could progress to invasive cervical cancer.
  • When detected early and treated, HSIL can often be completely eliminated before developing into cancer.
  • It is important to follow your clinician’s recommendations regarding follow-up and treatment of HSIL.

Facts about Cervical Cancer
  • The American Cancer Society predicts that about 12,360 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer in the U.S. in 2014.
  • Risk factors for cervical cancer include, but are not limited to:  HPV (high risk) infection, sexual activity at a young age, a history of multiple sexual partners, smoking, and conditions that compromise the immune system, such as HIV infection.  
  • Early detection greatly improves the chances of successful treatment and prevents any early cervical cell changes from becoming cancerous. Cervical cancer is rare in women who have received regular screening before the age of 65.  

Sources for Additional Information

 



What is Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?

HPV (human papilloma virus) is a common virus that affects both females and males. In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that 20 million people in the United States had this virus. There are many different types of HPV; some cause no harm. Others can cause diseases of the genital area. For most people the virus goes away on its own. When the virus does not go away it can develop into cervical cancer, precancerous lesions, or genital warts, depending on the HPV type.

Patient Diagnosis:
Positive for High Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

The Pap test is intended to detect cancer and changes that may lead to cancer.  The Pap test recently performed by your Doctor has shown that you are positive for High Risk HPV. This diagnosis does not mean that you have cervical cancer but that you may be at a higher risk to develop precancerous cervical lesions or cervical cancer.  Your HPV results will be reviewed by your physician in conjunction with your Pap results and your clinical history, to determine the most appropriate follow-up plan for you.

Facts about HPV
  • HPV is a virus, commonly transmitted during sexual activity, including oral sex.  
  • High Risk HPV can lead to abnormal cell changes and has been associated with the development of cervical cancer.  
  • High Risk HPV infections may clear on their own within two years or less and if so will not lead to cervical cancer.  Persistent HPV infections that do not clear have been linked to the development of cervical cancer.  Both precancerous and cancerous lesions can often be treated surgically.  
  • It is important to follow your clinician’s recommendations regarding follow-up and treatment.

Facts about Cervical Cancer
  • The American Cancer Society predicts that about 12,360 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer in the U.S. in 2014.
  • Risk factors for cervical cancer include, but are not limited to:  HPV (high risk) infection, sexual activity at a young age, a history of multiple sexual partners, smoking, and conditions that compromise the immune system, such as HIV infection.  
  • Early detection greatly improves the chances of successful treatment and prevents any early cervical cell changes from becoming cancerous. Cervical cancer is rare in women who have received regular screening before the age of 65.

Sources for Additional Information

Who is at risk for HPV?

In 2005, the CDC estimated that at least 50% of sexually active people catch HPV during their lifetime. A male or female of any age who takes part in any kind of sexual activity that involves genital contact is at risk. Many people who have HPV may not show any signs or symptoms. This means that they can pass on the virus to others and not know it.

Patient Information about GARDASIL

(Types 6, 11, 16, and 18)

Read this information, which is provided as an informational resource only, with care before you or your child opts for the vaccination GARDASIL®. You or your child will need 3 doses of the vaccine. It is important to read this information when you receive each dose. Discuss any questions you may have with your health care provider to determine whether or not this vaccine is right for you or your child.

What is GARDASIL and what is it used for?

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in the vaccine (6, 11, 16, and 18):

  • Cervical cancer (cancer of the lower end of the uterus or womb).
  • Abnormal and precancerous cervical lesions.
  • Abnormal and precancerous vaginal lesions.
  • Abnormal and precancerous vulvar lesions.
  • Genital warts.

GARDASIL helps prevent these diseases but it will not treat them. You or your child cannot get these diseases from GARDASIL.

Who can receive GARDASIL?

GARDASIL is for girls and women 9 through 26 years of age.

Who should not receive GARDASIL?

Anyone who:
  • is allergic to any of the ingredients in the vaccine.
  • has an allergic reaction after getting a dose of the vaccine.

What should I tell my health care professional before I am vaccinated or my child is vaccinated with GARDASIL?

It is very important to tell your health care professional if you or your child:
  • has had an allergic reaction to the vaccine.
  • has a bleeding disorder and cannot receive injections in the arm.
  • has a weakened immune system, for example, due to a genetic defect or HIV infection.
  • is pregnant or is planning to become pregnant. GARDASIL is not recommended for use in pregnant women.
  • has any illness with a fever more than 100°F (37.8°C).
  • takes or plans to take any medicines, even over–the–counter.
Your health care professional will decide if you or your child should receive the vaccine.

How is GARDASIL given?

GARDASIL is given as an injection. You or your child will receive 3 doses of the vaccine. Ideally the doses are given as:
  • First dose: at a date you and your health care professional choose.
  • Second dose: 2 months after the first dose.
  • Third dose: 6 months after the first dose.
Make sure that you or your child gets all 3 doses. This allows you or your child to get the full benefits of GARDASIL. If you or your child misses a dose, your health care professional will decide when to give the missed dose.

What are the possible side effects of GARDASIL?

The most commonly reported side effects included:
  • Pain, swelling, itching, and redness at the injection site.
  • Fever.
  • Nausea.
  • Dizziness.
  • Vomiting.
  • Fainting.
Fainting can occur after vaccination, most commonly among adolescents and young adults. Although fainting episodes are uncommon, patients should be observed for 15 minutes after they receive HPV vaccine. Allergic reactions that may include difficulty breathing, wheezing (bronchospasm), hives, and rash have been reported. Some of these reactions have been severe. As with other vaccines, side effects that have been reported during general use include: swollen glands (neck, armpit, or groin), Guillain-Barre syndrome, and headache. If you or your child has any unusual or severe symptoms after receiving GARDASIL, contact your health care professional right away. For a more complete list of side effects, ask your health care professional.

What are the ingredients in GARDASIL?

The main ingredients are purified inactive proteins that come from HPV Types 6, 11, 16, and 18.

GARDASIL® [Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16, and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant] 96823053

It also contains amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, sodium chloride, L-histidine, polysorbate 80, sodium borate, and water for injection.

What are cervical cancer, precancerous lesions, and genital warts?

Cancer of the cervix is a serious disease that can be life threatening. This disease is caused by certain HPV types that can cause the cells in the lining of the cervix to change from normal to precancerous lesions. If these are not treated, they can turn cancerous. Certain types of HPV cause genital warts. They often appear as skin-colored growths. They are found on the inside or outside of the genitals. They can hurt, itch, bleed, and cause discomfort. These lesions are usually not precancerous. Sometimes, it takes multiple treatments to eliminate these lesions.

Will GARDASIL help me if I already have HPV?

You may benefit from GARDASIL if you already have HPV. This is because most people are not infected with all four types of HPV contained in the vaccine. In clinical trials, individuals with current or past infection with one or more vaccine-related HPV types prior to vaccination were protected from disease caused by the remaining vaccine HPV types. GARDASIL is not intended to be used for treatment for the above-mentioned diseases. Talk to your health care professional for more information. This information is a summary of information about GARDASIL. If you would like more information, please talk to your health care professional or visit www.gardasil.com.

What other key information about GARDASIL should I know?

  • Vaccination does not substitute for routine cervical cancer screening. Females who receive GARDASIL should continue cervical cancer screening.
  • As with all vaccines, GARDASIL may not fully protect everyone who gets the vaccine.
  • GARDASIL will not protect against diseases due to non-vaccine HPV types. There are more than 100 HPV types; GARDASIL helps protect against 4 types (6, 11, 16, and 18). These 4 types have been selected for GARDASIL because they cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts.
  • This vaccine will not protect you against HPV types to which you may have already been exposed.
  • GARDASIL also will not protect against other diseases that are not caused by HPV.
  • GARDASIL works best when given before you or your child has any contact with certain types of HPV (i.e., HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18).